Reading text files using the Stream API in Java 8

We discussed the Java 8 Stream API thoroughly on this blog starting here. We mostly looked at how the API is applied to MapReduce operations to analyse data in a stream.

The same API can be applied to File I/O. Java 8 adds a new method called “lines” to the BufferedReader object which opens a Stream of String. From then on it’s just standard Stream API usage to filter the lines in the file – and perform other operations on them in parallel such as filtering out the lines that you don’t need.

Here’s an example how you can read all lines in a file:

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Monitor the file system with FileSystemWatcher in C# .NET

In this post we’ll look at how you can use the FileSystemWatcher object to monitor the Windows file system for various changes.

A FileSystemWatcher object enables you to be notified when some change occurs in the selected part of the file system. This can be any directory, such as “c:\” or any subdirectory under the C: drive. So if you’d like to make sure you’re notified if a change occurs on e.g. “c:\myfolder” – especially if it’s editable by your colleagues – then FileSystemWatcher is a good candidate.

Consider the following Console application:

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Reading text files using the Stream API in Java 8

We discussed the Java 8 Stream API thoroughly on this blog starting here. We mostly looked at how the API is applied to MapReduce operations to analyse data in a stream.

The same API can be applied to File I/O. Java 8 adds a new method called “lines” to the BufferedReader object which opens a Stream of String. From then on it’s just standard Stream API usage to filter the lines in the file – and perform other operations on them in parallel such as filtering out the lines that you don’t need.

Here’s an example how you can read all lines in a file:

String filename = "c:\\logs\\log.txt";
File logFile = new File(filename);
try (BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(logFile));)
{
    StringBuilder fileContents = new StringBuilder();
    Stream<String> fileContentStream = reader.lines();
    fileContentStream.forEach(l -> fileContents.append(l).append(System.lineSeparator()));
    System.out.println(fileContents.toString());
}
catch (IOException ioe)
{

}

We simply append each line in the stream to a StringBuilder.

In my case the log.txt file has the following contents:

hello
this is a line
next line
this is another line
…and this is yet another line
goodbye

As we’re dealing with the Stream API the usual Map, Filter and Reduce methods are all available to be performed on the text. E.g. what if you’re only interested in those lines that start with “this”? Easy:

fileContentStream.filter(l -> l.startsWith("this"))
                    .forEach(l -> fileContents.append(l).append(System.lineSeparator()));

The StringBuilder will now only hold the following lines:

this is a line
this is another line

You can also use the Path and Files objects that were introduced in Java 7. The Files object too was extended with a method to get hold of the Stream object. The below example is equivalent to the above:

Path logFilePath = Paths.get("C:\\logs\\log.txt");
try (Stream<String> fileContentStream = Files.lines(logFilePath))            
{
    StringBuilder fileContents = new StringBuilder();
    fileContentStream.filter(l -> l.startsWith("this"))
            .forEach(l -> fileContents.append(l).append(System.lineSeparator()));
    System.out.println(fileContents.toString());
}
catch (IOException ioe)
{

}

View all posts related to Java here.

Reading a text file using a specific encoding in C# .NET

In this post we saw how to save a text file specifying an encoding in the StreamWriter constructor. You can indicate the encoding type when you read a file with StreamWriter’s sibling StreamReader. Normally you don’t need to worry about specifying the code page when reading files. .NET will automatically understand most encoding types when reading files.

Here’s an example how you can read a file with a specific encoding type:

string filename = string.Concat(@"c:\file-utf-seven.txt");
StreamWriter streamWriter = new StreamWriter(filename, false, Encoding.UTF7);
streamWriter.WriteLine("I am feeling great.");
streamWriter.Close();

using (StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(filename, Encoding.UTF7))
{
	Console.WriteLine(reader.ReadToEnd());
}

Read all posts dedicated to file I/O here.

Saving a text file using a specific encoding in C# .NET

The StreamWriter object constructor lets you indicate the encoding type when writing to a text file. The following method shows how simple it is:

private static void SaveFile(Encoding encoding)
{
	Console.WriteLine("Encoding: {0}", encoding.EncodingName);
	string filename = string.Concat(@"c:\file-", encoding.EncodingName, ".txt");
	StreamWriter streamWriter = new StreamWriter(filename, false, encoding);
	streamWriter.WriteLine("I am feeling great.");
	streamWriter.Close();
}

We saw in this post how to get hold of a specific code page. We also saw that if you only use characters in the ASCII range, i.e. positions 0-127 then most encoding types will handle the string in a uniform way.

Call the above method like this:

SaveFile(Encoding.UTF7);
SaveFile(Encoding.UTF8);
SaveFile(Encoding.Unicode);
SaveFile(Encoding.UTF32);

So we’ll have 4 files at the end each named after the encoding type. Depending on the supported code pages on your PC Notepad may or may not be able to handle the encoding types. Notepad should not have any problem with UTF8 and UTF16. The UTF7 file will probably look OK, whereas UTF32 will most likely look strange. In my case the UTF32 file content looked like this:

I a m f e e l i n g g r e a t .

…i.e. with some bonus white-space in between the characters. Notepad was not able to correctly read UTF32.

The default encoding type is UTF-16 which will suffice in most situations. If you’re unsure then select this code page.

Providing an encoding type which cannot handle certain characters will result in replacement characters to be shown. If we change the string to be saved to “öåä I am feeling great.” and call the SaveFile method like

SaveFile(Encoding.ASCII);

…then you’ll see the following content in Notepad:

??? I am feeling great. ASCII could not handle the Swedish characters öåä and replaced them with question marks.

Read all posts dedicated to file I/O here.

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