Java 8 Date and time API: the Instant class

The Date and time API in Java 8 has been completely revamped. Handling dates, time zones, calendars etc. had been cumbersome and fragmented in Java 7 with a lot of deprecated methods. Developers often had to turn to 3rd party date handlers for Java such as Joda time.

One of many new key concepts in the java.time package of Java 8 is the Instant class. It represents a point of time in a continuous timeline where this time point is accurate to the level of nanoseconds.

The immutable Instant class comes with some default built-in values:

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Java 8 Date and time API: the LocalDate class

Introduction

The Date and time API in Java 8 has been completely revamped. Handling dates, time zones, calendars etc. had been cumbersome and fragmented in Java 7 with a lot of deprecated methods. Developers often had to turn to 3rd party date handlers for Java such as Joda time.

One of many new key concepts in the java.time package of Java 8 is the immutable LocalDate class. A LocalDate represents a date at the level of days such as April 04 1988.

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Insert a non-existent value into a Map in Java 8

Consider the following Employee class:

public class Employee
{
    private UUID id;
    private String name;
    private int age;

    public Employee(UUID id, String name, int age)
    {
        this.id = id;
        this.name = name;
        this.age = age;
    }
        
    public UUID getId()
    {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(UUID id)
    {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getName()
    {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name)
    {
        this.name = name;
    }    
    
    public int getAge()
    {
        return age;
    }

    public void setAge(int age)
    {
        this.age = age;
    }
}

Let’s put some Employee objects into a hash map:

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Replacing a value in a Map in Java 8

The Java 8 SDK has a couple of interesting new default “replace” methods available on the Map interface.

Consider the following HashMap:

Map<String, String> sizes = new HashMap<>();
sizes.put("XS", "Extra small");
sizes.put("S", "Small");
sizes.put("M", "Medium");
sizes.put("L", "Large");
sizes.put("XL", "Extra large");
sizes.put("XXL", "Extra extra large");

Say we’d like to replace the value of key “S”:

String replacedValue = sizes.replace("S", "Small size");

The replace method returns the value of the replaced string. In the above case the key “S” will have a new value “Small size” and “replace” returns “Small” as it was the value of “S” before the replace operation.

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Conditionally remove elements from a List in Java 8

Java 8 introduces a new method available for Collection types: removeif(). It accepts a predicate which defines the condition on which the elements should be removed. It returns a boolean where a true response means that at least one item has been removed and false otherwise:

Collection<String> stringStack = new Stack<>();
stringStack.add("Hello");
stringStack.add("my");
stringStack.add("dear");
stringStack.add("world");
        
stringStack.removeIf(s -> s.contains("ll"));

The above example will remove “Hello” from the list stack.

Note that not all collections support item removal. In that case the method will throw an UnsupportedOperationException in case an attempt is made to remove a matching element. The ArrayList is one such collection:

Collection<String> asList = Arrays.asList("hello", "my", "dear", "world");
asList.removeIf(s -> s.contains("ll"));

This will throw an exception unfortunately as the Array.asList method returns an ArrayList of type java.util.Arrays.ArrayList (which is read only and fixed size) and not the classic java.util.ArrayList (resizable and item-removable) – based on a comment by Juanito below.

View all posts related to Java here.

Using the Comparator class in Java 8 to compare objects

Java 8 comes with a range of built-in implementations of the Comparator interface.

Consider the following Employee class:

public class Employee
{
    private UUID id;
    private String name;
    private int age;

    public Employee(UUID id, String name, int age)
    {
        this.id = id;
        this.name = name;
        this.age = age;
    }
        
    public UUID getId()
    {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(UUID id)
    {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getName()
    {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name)
    {
        this.name = name;
    }    
    
    public int getAge()
    {
        return age;
    }

    public void setAge(int age)
    {
        this.age = age;
    }    
}

…and the following list of employees:

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Create a List using Arrays.asList in Java 8

Java 8 has a number of new methods on Collections. One such utility method is the static asList method with which you can quickly create a List of T.

Here’s how it works for a List of integers:

List<Integer> asList = Arrays.asList(1,2,3,4);

…and for a List of strings:

List<String> asList = Arrays.asList("hello", "my", "dear", "world");

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